Language/spoilers

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Deciphering Ancient is largely made possible because individual characters, or "glyphs," convey meaning. For instance, the glyph meaning "person" connected to the character for "one" creates the word "I" or "me." Adding the glyph indicating possession changes it to "my." More complex words are created by combining multiple glyphs, sometimes using their connotative rather than their literal meanings.

Glyphs[edit]

Atoms are extracted from the game output file, from lines such as this:

TransModelWord: Word: [PrototypeWordModel: englishWord=Goddess, atoms=person,joinGlyph2,Knowledge]
Glyph Atom Type Meaning
; quality Part of speech Adjective
" verb Part of speech Verb
) noun Part of speech Noun, basic/concrete
Standalone word: "thing."
( property Part of speech Noun, complex/abstract
? query Part of speech Questions, conditionals
' of Relationship/
Category
Possession
Standalone word: "of" or "as"
x not Relationship Negation: no, none, not
. joinGlyph2 Relationship Connects glyphs within a word.
Appears after Category-type glyphs.
: joinGlyph1 Relationship Connects glyphs within a word.
Indicates a subject/object relationship; the following glyphs explain the previous one in more detail.
, primitive Relationship Indicates that the previous glyph's meaning is the meaning of the entire word.
"Itself."
w and Relationship And
Often appears as an independent word.
j Being Relationship Any present form of the verb "to be" (am, is, etc.)
Often appears as an independent word.
0 0 Number Zero, none, nothing
1 1 Number One
Also used to indicate first person, relating to the speaker.
2 2 Number Two
Also used to indicate second person, relating to the listener/reader.
3 3 Number Three
Also used to indicate third person, relating to others.
4 4 Number Four
5 5 Number Five
6 6 Number Six
7 7 Number Seven
8 8 Number Eight
9 9 Number Nine
f many Number Many, multiple, plurality
Sometimes used as an intensifier, ie, "very."
t plant Category Plant, nature
u place Category Location, place
c time Category Time
y mineral Category Editors uncertain: likely means either "tool," "metal," or "charged." Seems to be made of glyphs for "light" and "rock," hence "sparkling rock."
r person Category Human, person (made up of the glyphs for "creature" and "knowledge")
k creature Category Animal, nonhuman
g Say Category Communicate. Similarity to "knowledge."
= Water General Liquid, water
May also represent speed or value
z Heat General Fire, flame, heat
Metaphorically, anger or violence
v Rock General Rock, ground, earth
h Light General Light, happiness
s Motion General Movement, travel, path
l Life General Life, living
o Circle General Complete/whole, cyclical, round, loop
q Food General Food
i High General Height, up
p Knowledge General Knowledge
b past_tense General Past, history
Also used to mark past tense on verbs.
d Beginning General Beginning
e Possession General Hold, carry
n Join General Together, joined, near
m Separate General Separate, divided, far
a Truth General Truth, correct
Metaphorically, goodness, justice, or beauty

Words[edit]

All words, meanings and subword explanations have been extracted from the game files. Meanings that end in "?" have only been extracted, i.e. they haven't been verified by players yet. Meanings in italics aren't used in any phrases, and thus can't be confirmed in-game - they exist only in the game files, but are still useful for rounding out the meaning of the word. If all the meanings end in "?" or italics, that word hasn't been seen yet (or no one has recorded it here).

The first meaning for a word is "primary" - you can tell this in-game because when you know a word, if you are using it with a secondary meaning the primary one will appear below in parenthesis. Sometimes the "primary" meaning is not the "common" one: For instance, "act" appears most commonly as "do".

There is a complicated "validation" algorithm that changes the spelling of words after they are assembled from their subwords. This can cause strange results sometimes. For instance, "nowhere" is made from place-not-place (uxu), which makes sense, but after validation the second "place" is removed and it's just u.x

Word Meaning Subwords Logic
y.= acid? y (mineral) = (Water)
;'sc.xd across ; (quality) '.s (toward) c.xd (end) toward [the] end
" act / do / does? / acts " (verb)
b" acted / did b (past_tense) " (act)
"y.s activate / operate? / activates / operates " (verb) y.s (work)
"by.s activated / operated " (verb) b (past_tense) "y.s (activate)
c(.w again c (time) (.w (more) time-more: [one] more time
c.i age / epoch c (time) i (High)
'.su.d ahead / in-front? '.s (toward) u.d (front) toward [the] front
"'sr.el aid / save / help / aids / saves / helps " (verb) "'sr.e (give) l (Life) give-life
)i, air / airs ) (noun) i (High)
;"l alive? / living ; (quality) "l, (live)
of all / every o (Circle) f (many) complete-multiple: whole [of] many
"b'sr.e:"hs allowed " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:"hs (let)
;x' alone ; (quality) x (not) ' (of)
s'.i along s (Motion) '.i (on)
;fc ancient / old ; (quality) f (many) c (time) many/much-time
w and w (and)
(r.z anger ( (property) r (person) z (Heat) property-person-heat: heated emotion
;(r.z angry ; (quality) (r.z (anger) quality [of] anger
1(.w another / also 1 (1) (.w (more)
);x'f:)"hs apeture? ) (noun) ;x'.f (tiny) )"hs (entrance)
";"ph appear / appears " (verb) ;"ph (visible)
"b:;"ph appeared " (verb) b (past_tense) ";"ph (appear)
)mo arc / arcs ) (noun) m (Separate) o (Circle)
r."gxgu architect / architects r (person) "gxg (write) u (place)
)er arm / arms ) (noun) e (Possession) r (person)
)fr."el army / armies ) (noun) f (many) r."el (soldier) many-soldiers
'.o around / round ' (of) o (Circle)
"vsu arrange / organise / tidy / tidies / arranges / organises " (verb) v (Rock) s (Motion) u (place)
"u.vs arrive / land / enter / dock / arrives / enters / lands / docks " (verb) u.v (site) s (Motion) ground-motion: go (to the) ground
r."gxgh artist / painter / artists / painters r (person) "gxgh (draw)
'.?.)s as-if ' (of) ?.)s (if) as-if
"?."g ask / asks " (verb) ? (query) "g, (speak)
"b?."g asked " (verb) b (past_tense) "?."g (ask)
;")hi:)pi asleep ; (quality) ")hi:)pi (sleep)
'.e at / in ' (of) e (Possession) of-possession
;x:")hi:)pi awake ; (quality) x (not) ")hi:)pi (sleep)
;m, away / far / distant / division? / separation ; (quality) m (Separate)
su.xd backward / backwards s (Motion) u.xd (rear)
;x(.al bad ; (quality) x (not) ;(.al (good)
"'sr.esu.x'e banish / banishes " (verb) "'sr.es (push) u.x'e (outside) send-outside
"b'sr.esu.x'e banished " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.esu.x'e (banish)
)k.i:)"mqr beak / beaks ) (noun) k.i (eagle) )"mqr (tooth)
;(.h(.al beautiful ; (quality) (.h(.al (beauty)
(.h(.al beauty ( (property) h (Light) (.al (honour)
;'ex'e:)"p because ;'ex'e (via) )"p (reason)
;bd before ; (quality) b (past_tense) d (Beginning)
"bc.d began " (verb) b (past_tense) "c.d (begin)
"c.d begin / begins " (verb) c.d (start)
'su.xd behind '.s (toward) u.xd (rear)
"pa believe / trust / accept / believes / trusts / accepts " (verb) "p, (think) a (Truth)
"bpa believed / trusted / accepted " (verb) b (past_tense) "pa (believe)
y.)(.gi bell / bells y (mineral) )(.gi (song)
"ju.l belong / belongs " (verb) j (is) u.l (home)
"bju.l belonged " (verb) b (past_tense) "ju.l (belong)
"xa betray / betrays " (verb) " (act) x (not) a (Truth)
(."xa betrayal / treachery? ( (property) "xa (betray)
"bxa betrayed " (verb) b (past_tense) "xa (betray)
u.' between / among? / amongst / alongside u (place) ' (of)
;bc.xd beyond / after? ; (quality) b (past_tense) c.xd (end)
;'.f big / large? / great? ; (quality) ' (of) f (many)
)c.dr birth? / births ) (noun) c.d (start) r (person)
"mq bite / bites? " (verb) m (Separate) q (Food)
"bmq bitten " (verb) b (past_tense) "mq (bite)
"'.r.p bless / blesses? " (verb) ' (of) r.p (Goddess)
"b'r.p blessed? " (verb) b (past_tense) "'.r.p (bless)
)"'r.p blessing / blessings? ) (noun) "'.r.p (bless)
;r.x:"ph blind / blindly? ; (quality) r (person) x (not) "ph (watch) quality (of a) person deprived of (the capacity) to watch
)l= blood / bloods ) (noun) l (Life) = (Water)
")si blow / blows " (verb) )si (wind)
"b:)si blowed " (verb) b (past_tense) ")si (blow)
)s:)si boat / ship / boats? / ships ) (noun) s (Motion) )si (wind) vehicle (for) wind
)r body / bodies ) (noun) ) (thing) r (person)
)r.v bone? / bones ) (noun) )r (body) v (rock)
)'.p book / books ) (noun) ' (of) p (Knowledge) object of/with knowledge
u.xi bottom u (place) x (not) i (High)
"be:"e bought " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:"e (buy)
"b:)n bound " (verb) b (past_tense) ")n (tie)
)"e:;x:"hs box / boxes? / container / barrel / containers / barrels ) (noun) "e, (hold) ;x:"hs (narrow)
t.st.i branch / branches t (plant) s (Motion) t.i (tree)
;")z brave / bold ; (quality) " (act) )z, (fire)
)"e:)i breath? ) (noun) "e:)i (breathe)
"e:)i breathe / breathes? " (verb) "e, (hold) )i, (air)
"be:)i breathed " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:)i (breathe)
;h, bright / brilliant / shining ; (quality) h (Light)
;'of:;h brightest ; (quality) '.of (most) ;h, (bright)
;"bzm broken ; (quality) "bzm (severed)
"nv build / make? / makes? / builds " (verb) n (Join) v (Rock)
)vu.l building / buildings? ) (noun) v (rock) u.l (home)
"bnv built / made? " (verb) b (past_tense) "nv (build)
"bu.vxs buried " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.vxs (bury)
"u.vxs bury / buries " (verb) u.v (site) x (not) s (Motion)
;k, busy / active / restless ; (quality) k (creature)
xw but / yet? / except? x (not) w (and)
"e:"e buy / buys " (verb) e (Possession) "e, (hold)
"(.gj call / calls " (verb) (.gj (name)
"b(.gj called " (verb) b (past_tense) "(.gj (call)
"bsu came " (verb) b (past_tense) "su (come)
?." can ? (query) " (act)
x?." can-not / cannot? x (not) ?." (can)
)zh candle / candles ) (noun) z (Heat) h (Light)
r.e)s:)si captain / captains r (person) e (Possession) )s:)si (boat)
(.;x:")z caution? / wariness ( (property) ;x:")z (wary)
"c.xd cease / stop? / stops? / finish / finishes / complete / ceases / completes " (verb) c.xd (end)
;ea certain / sure ; (quality) e (Possession) a (Truth)
y.)n chain / chains y (mineral) )n, (rope)
"t."l change / grow? / changes? / blooms? / bloom / grows " (verb) t (plant) "l, (live)
";=:"'s chase / chases " (verb) ;=, (fast) "'.s (follow)
"b:;=:"'s chased " (verb) b (past_tense) ";=:"'s (chase)
r.;ec child / children? r (person) ;ec (new)
"as choose / decide / chooses / decides " (verb) a (Truth) s (Motion)
"bas chose / decided " (verb) b (past_tense) "as (choose)
)o, circle / loop? / circles? / loops ) (noun) o (Circle)
y.o circuit? / circuits y (mineral) o (Circle)
r.':)s:)si citizen / sailors? / sailor / citizens r (person) ' (of) )s:)si (boat)
u.;'fu.)fr city? / cities? u (place) ;'.f (big) u.)fr (village)
)"nvv clay ) (noun) "nv (build) v (Rock)
"r.si climb / climbs " (verb) "r.s (walk) i (high)
"br.si climbed " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.si (climb)
)gc clock / clocks ) (noun) g (Say) c (time)
"xhs close / closes? " (verb) x (not) "hs (open) action to cease (the) motion of light
"bxhs closed " (verb) b (past_tense) "xhs (close) past action to cease (the) motion of light
;(.w:;xm closer / shorter ; (quality) (.w (more) ;xm (near)
)zv coal / coals ) (noun) z (Heat) v (Rock)
;xz cold ; (quality) x (not) z (Heat)
"ef collect / gather? / collects / gathers " (verb) "e, (hold) f (many)
"su come / comes? " (verb) s (Motion) u (place)
"'sr.e:"le comfort? / console / comforts / consoles " (verb) "'sr.e (give) "le (love)
"b'sr.e:"le comforted / consoled " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:"le (comfort)
"bc.xd completed / stopped? / ended / finished / ceased " (verb) b (past_tense) "c.xd (cease)
"n, connect / link? / join? / joins? / connects / links " (verb) n (Join)
"bn connected / linked / joined " (verb) b (past_tense) "n, (connect)
y.)"le core / cores y (mineral) )"le (heart)
u.)so corner / bend / corners / bends u (place) )s, (path) o (Circle)
"'sr.e:)xl:"= corrupt / corrupts? " (verb) "'sr.e (give) )xl:"= (poison)
"b'sr.e:)xl:"= corrupted " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:)xl:"= (corrupt)
"ph(.1w1 count / measure? / counts / measures " (verb) "ph (watch) (.1w1 (number)
"bph(.1w1 counted / measured " (verb) b (past_tense) "ph(.1w1 (count)
)u.i:"hs cover / lid / covers / lids ) (noun) u.i (top) "hs (open)
r.")xl"p coward / cowards? r (person) ")xl:"p (fear)
rt.)rt.i craftsman / craftsmen / craftswoman / craftswomen / carpenter / carpenters r (person) t.)rt.i (wood)
"pd create / invent / creates / invents " (verb) p (Knowledge) d (Beginning)
"bpd created / invented " (verb) b (past_tense) "pd (create)
)n:)sr crotch / groin ) (noun) n (Join) )sr (leg)
(.;xr."le cruelty ( (property) ;xr."le (unkind)
r."of:"zm crusher? / destroyer / crushers / destroyers r (person) "of:"zm (destroy)
)"= cup / cups ) (noun) "=, (drink)
;)mo curved / bent ; (quality) )mo (arc)
r."zm cutter? / slicer / cutters / slicers r (person) "zm (sever)
y.)"ry."zm dagger / daggers y (mineral) )"r (hand) y."zm (sword)
"(.gi:"is dance? / dances " (verb) (.gi (music) "is (play)
"b(.gi:"is danced " (verb) b (past_tense) "(.gi:"is (dance)
(."e)xl danger ( (property) "e, (hold) )xl (death)
;(."e:)xl dangerous / perilous ; (quality) (."e)xl (danger)
;)xh dark / black ; (quality) )xh (darkness)
)xh darkness ) (noun) x (not) h (Light)
)ih dawn / morning? ) (noun) )i, (air) h (light)
)c.o day / days ) (noun) c (time) o (Circle)
;)xl dead / white ; (quality) )xl (death)
)xl death / deaths ) (noun) x (not) l (Life)
"gxa deceive / deceives " (verb) g (Say) x (not) a (Truth)
"bgxa deceived " (verb) b (past_tense) "gxa (deceive)
(.xa deception / falsehood? ( (property) x (not) a (Truth)
(."as decision / choice? ( (property) "as (choose)
"v:"g:)s declare / order? / command? / instruct / claim / declares / orders / instructs / commands / claims " (verb) v (Rock) "g:)s (lead)
"bv:"g:)s declared? / claimed / ordered / commanded / instructed " (verb) b (past_tense) "v:"g:)s (declare)
;fxi deep ; (quality) f (many) ;xi (low)
"u.l defend / protect / defends? / guards? / protects? / guard " (verb) u.l (home)
"bu.l defended / protected? / guarded " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.l (defend)
"g:"ex demand / demands? " (verb) g (Say) "ex (want)
"bg:"ex demanded " (verb) b (past_tense) "g:"ex (demand)
"bxp:)i denied " (verb) b (past_tense) "xp:)i (deny)
"xp:)i deny / denies " (verb) x (not) "p:)i (hear)
r."g)'o designer / designers r (person) "g:)'o (intend)
u."s destination / destinations u (place) "s, (go)
"of:"zm destroy / crush / destroys / crushes " (verb) of (all) "zm (sever)
"bof:"zm destroyed / crushed " (verb) b (past_tense) "of:"zm (destroy)
"xl die / dies? " (verb) x (not) l (Life)
"bxl died " (verb) b (past_tense) "xl (die)
"mv dig / digs " (verb) m (Separate) v (Rock)
"b:;x:"ph disappeared? / faded " (verb) b (past_tense) ";x:"ph (fade)
"be:;'ex'eh discovered / found? " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:;'ex'eh (find)
;xof(.al dishonest ; (quality) x (not) ;of(.al (honest)
(.x:;of(.al dishonesty ( (property) x (not) ;of(.al (honest)
x" do-not / does-not x (not) " (act)
kur."'sr.ee donkey / horse / donkeys / horses k (creature) ur."'sr.ee (market)
"b= drank " (verb) b (past_tense) "=, (drink)
"gxgh draw? / draws " (verb) "gxg (write) h (Light)
"bgxgh drew " (verb) b (past_tense) "gxgh (draw)
"=, drink / drinks " (verb) = (Water)
"bxe dropped " (verb) b (past_tense) "xe (lose)
"xl= drown / drowns " (verb) "xl (die) = (Water)
"bxl= drowned " (verb) b (past_tense) "xl= (drown)
;x'.= dry? / arid ; (quality) x (not) ;'.= (wet)
"bmv dug " (verb) b (past_tense) "mv (dig)
)pry.s duty / duties ) (noun) )pr (law) y.s (work)
;"xl dying ; (quality) "xl (die)
)of each ) (noun) of (all)
k.i eagle / bird / eagles / birds k (creature) i (High)
'.k.i eagle's ' (of) k.i (eagle)
)r."p:)i ear / ears ) (noun) r (person) "p:)i (hear)
;u.dc early ; (quality) u.d (front) c (time)
)t.v earth / soil / mud ) (noun) t (plant) v (Rock)
"q, eat / eats " (verb) q (Food)
"bq eaten " (verb) b (past_tense) "q, (eat)
;ykr.)'pr efficient ; (quality) ykr (robot) )'.pr (head)
8 eight 8 (8)
c.8 eighth c (time) 8 (8)
r.;fc elder / elders r (person) ;fc (ancient)
r( emotion r (person) ( (property)
r.)pr Emperor / Empress? / Emperors? / Empresses r (person) )pr (law) person (who makes the) law
'r.)pr Emperor's ' (of) r.)pr (Emperor)
ur.)pr.)fr Empire / Empires u (place) r.)pr (Emperor) )fr (people)
'ur.)pr.)fr Empire's ' (of) ur.)pr.)fr (Empire)
"bu.x'eof emptied " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.x'eof (empty)
"u.x'eof empty? " (verb) u.x'e (outside) of (all)
c.xd end / ends c (time) x (not) c.d (start)
;c.of endless / infinite? / eternal? ; (quality) c.of (forever)
r."xle enemy / enemies r (person) "xle (hate)
"(r.h enjoy / enjoys " (verb) (r.h (joy)
"b(r.h enjoyed " (verb) b (past_tense) "(r.h (enjoy)
;ff'f enormous / colossal ; (quality) ff (very) ;'.f (big)
)"hs entrance / door? / doors? ) (noun) "hs (open)
;1's1 equal ; (quality) 1 (one) '.s (toward) 1 (one)
")ils escape / escapes " (verb) )il (freedom) s (Motion)
"b:)ils escaped " (verb) b (past_tense) ")ils (escape)
")y."gxg etch / etches? " (verb) )y."gxg (print)
"b:)y."gxg etched " (verb) b (past_tense) ")y."gxg (etch)
)c.of eternity ) (noun) c.of (forever)
of) everything of (all) ) (noun)
u.of everywhere u (place) of (all)
"ga explain / teach / explains / teaches " (verb) g (Say) a (Truth)
"bga explained / taught " (verb) b (past_tense) "ga (explain)
");'f:)z explode / explodes " (verb) );'f:)z (explosion)
"b:);'f:)z exploded " (verb) b (past_tense) ");'f:)z (explode)
);'f:)z explosion / explosions ) (noun) ;'.f (big) )z, (fire)
)r.h eye / eyes? ) (noun) r (person) h (Light)
)r.o face? / faces ) (noun) r (person) o (Circle)
";x:"ph fade / disappear? / fades / disappears " (verb) ;x:"ph (invisible)
"xe:)si fail / fails " (verb) x (not) "e:)si (win)
"bxe:)si failed " (verb) b (past_tense) "xe:)si (fail)
(."pa faith / belief ( (property) "pa (believe)
"sxi fall / sink / descend / lower / falls / sinks / descends / lowers " (verb) s (Motion) x (not) i (High)
;b:"sxi fallen ; (quality) b (past_tense) "sxi (fall)
r.ef family? r (person) e (Possession) f (many)
;=, fast / quick? / quickly? / swift ; (quality) = (Water)
'.;= faster / quicker ' (of) ;=, (fast)
")xl:"p fear / fears " (verb) )xl (death) "p, (think)
"b:)xl:"p feared? " (verb) b (past_tense) ")xl:"p (fear)
"b'sr.eq fed " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.eq (feed)
"'sr.eq feed / feeds " (verb) "'sr.e (give) q (Food)
)'.sr feet / feets ) (noun) ' (of) )sr (leg)
"bsxi fell / lowered? / sank / descended " (verb) b (past_tense) "sxi (fall)
;xf few ; (quality) x (not) f (many)
utu.v field / fields u (place) tu.v (grass)
c.5 fifth c (time) 5 (5)
"r.z fight / fights " (verb) r (person) z (Heat)
"u.'eof fill " (verb) u.'.e (within) of (all)
"bu.'eof filled " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.'eof (fill)
"e:;'ex'eh find / discover / finds / discovers " (verb) "e, (hold) ;'ex'e (via) h (Light)
r."e;'ex'eh finder / finders r (person) "e:;'ex'eh (find)
;'of:;(.al finest / best? ; (quality) '.of (most) ;(.al (good)
)1:)"r finger ) (noun) 1 (1) )"r (hand)
)5:)"r fingers? ) (noun) 5 (5) )"r (hand)
)z, fire / fires ) (noun) z (Heat)
c.1 first c (time) 1 (1)
k.= fish / fishes k (creature) = (Water)
5 five 5 (5)
)g:)si flag / flags ) (noun) g (Say) )si (wind)
;x:)'o flat ; (quality) x (not) )'.o (shape)
)fs:)si fleet ) (noun) f (many) )s:)si (boat)
"bsu.)hi flew " (verb) b (past_tense) "su.)hi (fly)
u.)u.lu.v floor / floors u (place) )u.l (house) u.v (site)
"s= flow / run? / flows? / runs? / trickle / trickles " (verb) s (Motion) = (Water)
t.a flower / flowers? t (plant) a (Truth)
"su.)hi fly / flies " (verb) s (Motion) u.)hi (sky)
"'.s follow / follows? " (verb) '.s (toward)
"b'.s followed " (verb) b (past_tense) "'.s (follow)
r."'s follower / followers? / acolyte / acolytes r (person) "'.s (follow)
)q, food? ) (noun) q (Food)
(.x:)s'p foolishness / stupidity? / idiocy ( (property) x (not) (.)s'p (learning)
(.);)ov force? ( (property) );)ov (strength)
c.of forever / always c (time) of (all) time-all: [for] all time
"xep forget / forgot / forgets " (verb) "xe (lose) p (Knowledge)
"bxep forgeted " (verb) b (past_tense) "xep (forget)
;"xep forgotten? ; (quality) "xep (forget)
425 forty 4 (four) 25 (ten)
su.d forward? / forwards s (Motion) u.d (front)
"br.z fought " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.z (fight)
4 four 4 (4)
c.4 fourth c (time) 4 (4)
;)il free ; (quality) )il (freedom)
)il freedom ) (noun) i (High) l (Life)
r."le friend / beloved? / friends? r (person) "le (love)
(r."le friendship ( (property) r."le (friend)
k.si frog / frogs? / toad / toads k (creature) s (Motion) i (high)
x'.s from x (not) '.s (toward)
u.d front u (place) d (Beginning)
;':"c.xd full ; (quality) ' (of) "c.xd (cease)
;(.w:;m further / longer ; (quality) (.w (more) ;m, (away)
);)ov:)si gale / storm / gales / storms ) (noun) ;)ov (strong) )si (wind)
)"is game / games ) (noun) "is (play)
ut garden / gardens? u (place) t (plant)
rut gardener / gardeners r (person) ut (garden)
);'f:)"hs gate? / gates ) (noun) ;'.f (big) )"hs (entrance)
"bef gathered / collected " (verb) b (past_tense) "ef (collect)
"b'sr.e gave / given / provided / offered / presented " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e (give)
)"'sr.e gift / offering? / tribute / gifts / offerings / tributes ) (noun) "'sr.e (give)
"'sr.e give / provide? / gives? / present / bring / offer / presents / brings / provides / offers " (verb) '.s (toward) r (person) e (Possession)
r."'sr.e giver / bringer r (person) "'sr.e (give)
y.hv glass? y (mineral) h (Light) v (Rock)
"s, go / move? / travel? / goes / moves? / travels " (verb) s (Motion) "motion", set apart with" (indicates verb) and , ("itself")
);(.=:)"= goblet / goblets ) (noun) ;(.= (precious) )"= (cup)
'.r.p God's ' (of) r.p (Goddess)
r.p Goddess / God / Gods? / Goddesses r (person) p (knowledge) person and knowledge
;(.al good / fair? / just / ethical ; (quality) (.al (honour)
)c.xd:"r.f1gn goodbye? / farewell / goodbyes / farewells ) (noun) c.xd (end) "r.f1gn (welcome)
t.)"'sr.e grain? / fruit? / grains / fruits t (plant) )"'sr.e (gift)
tu.v grass t (plant) u.v (site)
;(."ph(.;r."le grateful / thankful ; (quality) (."ph(.;r."le (gratitude)
(."ph(.;r."le gratitude? / thanks / gratefulness ( (property) "ph (watch) (.;r."le (kindness)
(.':;'f greatness? ( (property) ' (of) ;'.f (big)
)"r.f1gn greeting / greetings ) (noun) "r.f1gn (welcome)
"bt."l grew / bloomed / changed " (verb) b (past_tense) "t."l (change)
")r.oh grin / grins " (verb) )r.oh (smile)
"b:)r.oh grinned / smiled? " (verb) b (past_tense) ")r.oh (grin)
;"t."l growing / flourishing / prosperous ; (quality) "t."l (change)
r."u.l' guardian / guardians r (person) "u.l (defend) ' (of)
"k.si:"p guess / assume? / guesses / assumes " (verb) "k.si (jump) "p, (think)
"bk.si:"p guessed / assumed " (verb) b (past_tense) "k.si:"p (guess)
)fr."'sr.ee guild? / guilds ) (noun) f (many) r."'sr.ee (seller)
)'prtu.v hair ) (noun) )'.pr (head) tu.v (grass)
;r.n hale / healthy? ; (quality) r (person) n (Join)
)"r hand / hands? ) (noun) " (verb) r (person)
;(r.h happy / joyful ; (quality) (r.h (joy)
;v, hard / firm? / solid? ; (quality) v (Rock)
")m:)r harm / hurt? / harms / hurts " (verb) )m:)r (injury)
"b:)m:)r harmed / wounded " (verb) b (past_tense) ")m:)r (harm)
)"eq harvest / harvests ) (noun) "e, (hold) q (Food)
"xle hate / hates " (verb) x (not) "le (love)
"bxle hated " (verb) b (past_tense) "xle (hate)
)'.pr head / mind? / soul? / heads? / brain / brains / minds / souls ) (noun) ' (of) p (Knowledge) r (person)
"n) heal / heals? " (verb) n (Join) ) (noun)
"bn:) healed " (verb) b (past_tense) "n) (heal)
r."n) healer / doctor / healers / doctors r (person) "n) (heal)
)"n:) healing? ) (noun) "n) (heal)
"p:)i hear / listen? / hears / listens " (verb) p (Knowledge) )i, (air)
"bp:)i heard? / listened " (verb) b (past_tense) "p:)i (hear)
)"le heart / hearts? ) (noun) "le (love)
'u.)hi heaven's ' (of) u.)hi (sky) of place [where there are] star[s]
ur.1 here u (place) r.1 (me) place [near] me
;"xj:"ph hidden / secret? ; (quality) "xj:"ph (hide)
"xj:"ph hide / hides? / hid " (verb) x (not) j (is) "ph (watch)
"bxj:"ph hided " (verb) b (past_tense) "xj:"ph (hide)
;i, high / above? / up? / over? ; (quality) i (High)
;'ofi highest ; (quality) '.of (most) i (high)
"e, hold / reclaim? / has? / carry / keep? / have / grasp? / take / holds? / keeps? / takes? / gets? / contain / own / get / contains / reclaims / grasps " (verb) e (Possession)
;'of:;r.p holiest ; (quality) '.of (most) ;r.p (holy)
;r.p holy / divine? / sacred? ; (quality) r.p (Goddess) godly (adjective of god)
u.l home / homes u (place) l (Life) place [where one] lives
;of(.al honest ; (quality) of (all) (.al (honour)
(.of(.al honesty ( (property) of (all) (.al (honour)
(.al honour / goodness ( (property) a (Truth) l (Life)
)"sii hopper / hoppers ) (noun) "sii (vault)
;z, hot? ; (quality) z (Heat)
)u.l house / houses ) (noun) u.l (home)
kr human / humans k (creature) r (person) creature [who is] intelligent-being
25i2 hundred 25 (ten) i (High) 2 (two)
)=:;xs ice ) (noun) = (Water) ;xs (still) water not moving
)pi idea / ideas? ) (noun) p (Knowledge) i (High)
?.)s if / how ? (query) )s, (path)
"h, illuminate / illuminates? " (verb) h (Light)
;r.)pr imperial? / regal ; (quality) r.)pr (Emperor)
;ia important / serious ; (quality) i (High) a (Truth)
)m:)r injury / wound? / wounds? / injuries ) (noun) m (Separate) )r (body)
;r? inquisitive / curious ; (quality) r (person) ? (query)
k.f:)sr insect / spider / insects / spiders k (creature) f (many) )sr (leg)
"g:)'o intend / plan / design / intends / plans / designs " (verb) "g, (speak) )'.o (shape)
"bg:)'o intended / meant? / planned / designed " (verb) b (past_tense) "g:)'o (intend)
;x:"ph invisible ; (quality) x (not) "ph (watch)
)ov iron? ) (noun) o (Circle) v (Rock)
j is / are? / am? / be? j (Being)
xj is-not / are-not x (not) j (is)
rk it / itself? r (person) k (creature)
"e:)z itch / itches / scratch / scratches " (verb) e (Possession) )z, (fire)
'.rk its ' (of) rk (it)
)hiv jewel / treasures? / treasure / gem / crystal / jewels / gems / crystals ) (noun) )hi (star) v (Rock)
)"s:)s journey / journeys ) (noun) "s:)s (sail)
(r.h joy / happiness? / joys ( (property) r (person) h (Light)
"asr judge / judges " (verb) "as (choose) r (person)
"basr judged " (verb) b (past_tense) "asr (judge)
"k.si jump / hop / jumps / hops " (verb) k.si (frog)
"bk.si jumped / hopped " (verb) b (past_tense) "k.si (jump)
)s:)v:)n junction / junctions ) (noun) s (Motion) )v:)n (knot)
)"mqru key / keys ) (noun) )"mqr (tooth) u (place)
"el kill " (verb) e (Possession) l (Life)
"bel killed " (verb) b (past_tense) "el (kill)
(.;r."le kindness / generosity ( (property) ;r."le (nice)
r.a king / kings? / queen / queens r (person) a (Truth)
)u.)so:)sr knee / knees? ) (noun) u.)so (corner) )sr (leg)
";xi:)u.)so:)sr kneel / kneels " (verb) ;xi (low) )u.)so:)sr (knee)
"b:;xi:)u.)so:)sr kneeled " (verb) b (past_tense) ";xi:)u.)so:)sr (kneel)
)v:)n knot / knots? ) (noun) v (Rock) )n, (rope)
)p, knowledge ) (noun) p (Knowledge)
jx' lack / lacks j (is) x' (without)
)eh lamp / lantern / lamps / lanterns ) (noun) e (Possession) h (Light)
"bu.vs landed / docked / arrived " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.vs (arrive)
;"u.vs landing ; (quality) "u.vs (arrive)
)f:;"gxg language ) (noun) f (many) );"gxg (word)
c.x1 last c (time) x (not) c.1 (first)
;u.xdc late ; (quality) u.xd (rear) c (time)
")(.gi:;(r.h laugh / laughs " (verb) )(.gi (song) ;(r.h (happy)
"b:)(.gi:;(r.h laughed " (verb) b (past_tense) ")(.gi:;(r.h (laugh)
(.")(.gi;(r.h laughter? ( (property) ")(.gi:;(r.h (laugh)
"c.d:"s:)s launch / launches " (verb) c.d (start) "s:)s (sail)
"bc.d:"s:)s launched " (verb) b (past_tense) "c.d:"s:)s (launch)
)pr law / laws? ) (noun) p (Knowledge) r (person)
"g:)s lead / show? / guide? / point? / leads? / reveal / reveals / shows / guides / points " (verb) g (Say) )s, (path)
r."g)s leader / leaders r (person) "g:)s (lead)
t.ht.i leaf t (plant) h (Light) t.i (tree)
"ep learn / understand " (verb) e (Possession) p (Knowledge)
"bep learned / understood " (verb) b (past_tense) "ep (learn)
(.)s'p learning / wisdom ( (property) )s, (path) ' (of) p (knowledge)
"ms leave / exit / leaves / exits " (verb) m (Separate) s (Motion)
"bms leaved " (verb) b (past_tense) "ms (leave)
)sr leg / legs ) (noun) s (Motion) r (person)
(.)s length ( (property) )s, (path)
xf less x (not) f (many)
"'sr.e:"hs let / allow / lets / allows " (verb) "'sr.e (give) "hs (open)
u.)'p library / libraries u (place) )'.p (book)
t.v lichen / moss t (plant) v (Rock)
)l, life ) (noun) l (Life)
"si lift / raise? / rise? / ascend? / rises? / lifts / raises / ascends " (verb) s (Motion) i (High)
)h, light ) (noun) h (Light)
y.i lightning / thunder y (mineral) i (High)
)ho line / lines ) (noun) h (light) o (Circle)
"bh lit " (verb) b (past_tense) "h, (illuminate)
"l, live? / survive / lives? / survives " (verb) l (Life)
"bl lived / survived " (verb) b (past_tense) "l, (live)
)'.v load / weight / loads / weights ) (noun) ' (of) v (Rock)
;'.fs long ; (quality) ;'.f (big) s (Motion)
;x:)v:)n loose / slack / limp ; (quality) x (not) )v:)n (knot)
"xe lose / has-not? / drop / loses / drops " (verb) x (not) e (Possession)
;"xe lost / gone? ; (quality) "xe (lose)
;g:;'f loud ; (quality) g (Say) ;'.f (big)
"le love / loves? " (verb) l (Life) e (Possession)
"ble loved " (verb) b (past_tense) "le (love)
;xi low / below / down? / under ; (quality) x (not) i (High)
;of:)"le loyal / loving ; (quality) of (all) )"le (heart)
(.of:)"le loyalty / devotion ( (property) of (all) )"le (heart)
(.;(.al)si luck? ( (property) ;(.al (good) )si (wind)
;ft lush / fertile / green ; (quality) f (many) t (plant)
(.i= luxury ( (property) i (High) = (Water)
y.) machine / machines y (mineral) ) (noun)
f many f (many)
)':"zm mark / marks ) (noun) ' (of) "zm (sever)
ur."'sr.ee market? / markets u (place) r."'sr.ee (seller)
'rykr."asr master's? / owner's ' (of) rykr."asr (overseer)
?c." may / would? ? (query) c." (should)
?.xc." may-not / would-not ? (query) x (not) c." (should)
r.1 me / I / myself r (person) 1 (1) first person
"r.f1n meet / met / meets " (verb) r.f1 (we) n (Join)
"br.f1n meeted " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.f1n (meet)
y.p memory / memories y (mineral) p (Knowledge)
'r."'sr.ee merchant's ' (of) r."'sr.ee (seller)
(."'sr.e"le mercy ( (property) "'sr.e:"le (comfort)
y.v metal / metals y (mineral) v (Rock)
u.mv mine / mines? u (place) m (Separate) v (Rock)
"c.ofn mix / combine? / mixes / combines " (verb) c.of (forever) n (Join)
"bc.ofn mixed / combined " (verb) b (past_tense) "c.ofn (mix)
c.xi moment / instant c (time) x (not) i (High)
k."r.sit.i monkey / monkeys k (creature) "r.si (climb) t.i (tree)
u.lo moon / world / moons / worlds u (place) l (Life) o (Circle)
(.w more ( (property) w (and)
'.of most ' (of) of (all)
"nv:)'o mould / moulds? " (verb) "nv (build) )'.o (shape)
"bnv:)'o moulded " (verb) b (past_tense) "nv:)'o (mould)
)iv mountain / mountains? ) (noun) i (High) v (Rock)
k.ff:;x'fk.;(r.h:)t.v mouse / mice k (creature) ff (very) ;x'.f (tiny) k.;(r.h)t.v (pig)
)d:)=:)si mouth / mouths ) (noun) d (Beginning) )=:)si (river) thing beginning (the) river
(.gi music / tune? ( (property) g (Say) i (High)
r.'(.gi musician / musicians r (person) ' (of) (.gi (music)
ac." must a (Truth) c." (should)
xac." must-not / should-not x (not) ac." (must)
)xpr.)s:)si mutiny / mutinies ) (noun) x (not) )pr (law) )s:)si (boat)
'.r.1 my ' (of) r.1 (me) belonging to me
);"xj:"ph mystery / mysteries? / secrets? ) (noun) ;"xj:"ph (hidden)
(.gj name / names ( (property) g (Say) j (is)
;x:"hs narrow / shut? ; (quality) x (not) "hs (open)
"ps navigate " (verb) p (Knowledge) s (Motion)
"bps navigated " (verb) b (past_tense) "ps (navigate)
;xm near / proximate ; (quality) x (not) ;m, (away)
)fhi Nebula ) (noun) f (many) )hi (star)
':)fhi Nebula's ' (of) )fhi (Nebula)
c.x never c (time) x (not)
;ec new / young? ; (quality) e (Possession) c (time)
21 next 2 (two) 1 (one)
;r."le nice / kind? ; (quality) r (person) "le (love)
)bc.o night / nights? ) (noun) b (past_tense) )c.o (day)
9 nine 9 (9)
c.9 ninth c (time) 9 (9)
0 no / none? / zero 0 (0)
r.0 no-one r (person) 0 (0)
r."r.s nomad / walker? / nomads r (person) "r.s (walk) person (who) walk
xof not-all x (not) of (all)
)0, nothing ) (noun) 0 (0)
c.)r.1 now c (time) )r.1 (this)
u.x nowhere u (place) x (not) u (place)
(.1w1 number / numbers? ( (property) 1 (one) w (and) 1 (one)
(.")pr obedience ( (property) ")pr (obey)
;")pr obedient ; (quality) ")pr (obey)
")pr obey? / obeys " (verb) )pr (law)
"b:)pr obeyed " (verb) b (past_tense) ")pr (obey) past action (linked to the) law
u."ph observatory / observatories u (place) "ph (watch)
";0g:"ph observe / observes " (verb) ;0g (silent) "ph (watch)
"b:;0g:"ph observed " (verb) b (past_tense) ";0g:"ph (observe)
u.f= ocean / sea? / oceans / seas u (place) f (many) = (Water)
' of / as / with / than ' (of)
c.f often / frequently c (time) f (many)
'.i on / upon? ' (of) i (High)
1c once 1 (1) c (time)
1 one 1 (1)
;'.1 only ; (quality) ' (of) 1 (1)
"hs open / opens " (verb) h (Light) s (Motion)
"bhs opened " (verb) b (past_tense) "hs (open)
?.w or ? (query) w (and)
ut.i orchard / orchards u (place) t.i (tree)
"bvsu organised / arranged / tidied " (verb) b (past_tense) "vsu (arrange)
)xr.1 other / different ) (noun) x (not) )r.1 (this)
'.r.f1 our / ours? ' (of) r.f1 (we)
x'.e out x (not) '.e (at)
"l:;(.w:;m outlive / outlives " (verb) "l, (live) ;(.w:;m (further)
"bl:;(.w:;m outlived " (verb) b (past_tense) "l:;(.w:;m (outlive)
u.x'e outside? u (place) x (not) '.e (at)
rykr."asr overseer / master? / overseers / masters r (person) ykr (robot) "asr (judge)
"be owned / held? / taken? / carried / kept / contained / reclaimed / grasped / took / got " (verb) b (past_tense) "e, (hold)
r.e) owner / owners r (person) e (Possession) ) (noun)
ur.)pr palace / palaces u (place) r.)pr (Emperor) place [of the] emperor
r.e;ec parent / father? / mother? / parents? / fathers / mothers r (person) e (Possession) ;ec (new)
c.b:" past c (time) b (past_tense) " (act)
)s, path / way? / road? / paths? / ways? / roads? ) (noun) s (Motion)
u.x:"r.z peace / peaces u (place) x (not) "r.z (fight)
;t, peaceful / satisfied? / calm / content ; (quality) t (plant)
)fr people ) (noun) f (many) r (person)
r person / man? / woman? / someone r (person)
)zk.i phoenix ) (noun) )z, (fire) k.i (eagle)
(.xof piece / some? ( (property) x (not) of (all)
k.;(r.h)t.v pig / pigs k (creature) ;(r.h (happy) )t.v (earth)
r."sur.p pilgrim / pilgrims? r (person) "s, (go) ur.p (temple) person (who) come (for/by) God
'r."sur.p pilgrim's ' (of) r."sur.p (pilgrim)
)u, place / places? ) (noun) u (place)
t plant / plants? t (plant)
"is play / plays " (verb) i (High) s (Motion)
"bis played " (verb) b (past_tense) "is (play)
)xl:"= poison ) (noun) )xl (death) "=, (drink) death to drink
")1:)"r."'sr.es poke? / pokes " (verb) )1:)"r (finger) "'sr.es (push)
"b:)1:)"r."'sr.es poked " (verb) b (past_tense) ")1:)"r."'sr.es (poke)
;x(.= poor ; (quality) x (not) ;(.= (precious)
u.xs port / harbour? / haven / station / ports / harbours / havens / stations u (place) x (not) s (Motion)
"bu positioned " (verb) b (past_tense) "u, (put)
)e, possession / possessions ) (noun) e (Possession)
r.)"nvv potter / potters r (person) )"nvv (clay)
y.h power / powers y (mineral) h (Light)
"'sr.e(."ph(.;r."le praise? / praises " (verb) "'sr.e (give) (."ph(.;r."le (gratitude)
"b'sr.e(."ph(.;r."le praised " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e(."ph(.;r."le (praise)
"gr.p pray / prays? " (verb) g (Say) r.p (Goddess) speak [to] god
"bgr.p prayed " (verb) b (past_tense) "gr.p (pray)
)"gr.p prayer / worship? / prayers? ) (noun) "gr.p (pray)
;(.= precious / rich? / worthy? / valuable ; (quality) (.= (value)
;a:;x'f precise ; (quality) ;a, (true) ;x'.f (tiny)
12 previous 1 (one) 2 (two)
rc."r.a prince / princes? / princess / princesses r (person) c." (should) r.a (king)
)y."gxg print ) (noun) y (mineral) "gxg (write)
";(.al:"l prosper? / flourish / prospers / flourishes " (verb) ;(.al (good) "l, (live)
"b:;(.al:"l prospered / flourished " (verb) b (past_tense) ";(.al:"l (prosper)
)u.d:)s:)si prow ) (noun) u.d (front) )s:)si (boat)
"'sr.es push / send / throw? / pushes / sends / throws " (verb) "'sr.e (give) s (Motion)
"b'sr.es pushed / sent / threw " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.es (push)
"u, put? / position / puts / positions " (verb) u (place)
;g:;x'f quiet ; (quality) g (Say) ;x'.f (tiny)
k.;x'fk.;(r.h)t.v rabbit / rabbits k (creature) ;x'.f (tiny) k.;(r.h)t.v (pig)
"bs= ran / trickled " (verb) b (past_tense) "s= (flow)
"e:;m reach / reaches? " (verb) "e, (hold) ;m, (away)
"be:;m reached? " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:;m (reach)
"p:)i:)"gxg read / reads " (verb) "p:)i (hear) )"gxg (writing)
"bp:)i:)"gxg readed " (verb) b (past_tense) "p:)i:)"gxg (read)
")"eq reap / reaps " (verb) )"eq (harvest)
"b:)"eq reaped " (verb) b (past_tense) ")"eq (reap)
u.xd rear / back? u (place) x (not) d (Beginning)
)"p reason / reasons ) (noun) "p, (think)
"x:)pr rebel? / rebels " (verb) x (not) ")pr (obey)
"bx:)pr rebelled? " (verb) b (past_tense) "x:)pr (rebel)
y.)"g recording / ghost / recordings / ghosts y (mineral) )"g (voice)
;)z red / fiery ; (quality) )z, (fire)
"c(.wn rejoin / rejoins " (verb) c(.w (again) n (Join)
"bc(.wn rejoined " (verb) b (past_tense) "c(.wn (rejoin)
")il release? / liberate / releases / liberates " (verb) )il (freedom)
"b:)il released / liberated " (verb) b (past_tense) ")il (release)
"xsu remain / endure? / remains? / linger / lingers / endures " (verb) "xs (stay) u (place)
"bxsu remained / lingered / endured " (verb) b (past_tense) "xsu (remain)
"r.p remember " (verb) r (person) p (Knowledge)
"br.p remembered " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.p (remember)
"xu remove / unload? / removes / unloads " (verb) x (not) "u, (put)
"bxu removed / unloaded " (verb) b (past_tense) "xu (remove)
"nr repair / mend / repairs / mends " (verb) n (Join) r (person)
"bnr repaired / mended " (verb) b (past_tense) "nr (repair)
"uc(.w replace / replaces " (verb) "u, (put) c(.w (again)
"buc(.w replaced " (verb) b (past_tense) "uc(.w (replace)
"(.al respect? / respects " (verb) (.al (honour)
"b(.al respected " (verb) b (past_tense) "(.al (respect)
"u.xd:"s return / returns " (verb) u.xd (rear) "s, (go)
"bu.xd:"s returned " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.xd:"s (return)
"bg:)s revealed / led? / showed / pointed / guided " (verb) b (past_tense) "g:)s (lead)
'.;(.= richer ' (of) ;(.= (precious)
)"r.o ring / rings ) (noun) )"r (hand) o (Circle)
)=:)si river / rivers? / stream / streams ) (noun) = (Water) )si (wind) water [that moves with the] wind
':)=:)si river's ' (of) )=:)si (river)
ykr robot / robots / mechanicals? / mechanical y (mineral) kr (human) inorganic human
'.ykr robot's / robots'? ' (of) ykr (robot)
)v, rock / stone? / stones? / rocks ) (noun) v (Rock)
t.vt.i root / roots t (plant) v (Rock) t.i (tree)
)n, rope / ropes? ) (noun) n (Join)
"bsi rose / ascended " (verb) b (past_tense) "si (lift)
;il royal / noble ; (quality) i (High) l (Life)
"'sr.e:)pr rule / rules? " (verb) "'sr.e (give) )pr (law)
"b'sr.e:)pr ruled " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:)pr (rule)
;u.l safe / safely? ; (quality) u.l (home)
(.;u.l safety / protection? ( (property) ;u.l (safe)
"s:)s sail / sails? " (verb) "s, (go) )s, (path)
)"e:)si sailcloth / sailcloths? ) (noun) "e, (hold) )si (wind)
"bs:)s sailed / journeyed " (verb) b (past_tense) "s:)s (sail)
'r.':)s:)si sailor's? ' (of) r.':)s:)si (citizen)
)=v salt ) (noun) = (Water) v (Rock)
"b(.gi sang / cried " (verb) b (past_tense) "(.gi (shout)
"b'sr.el saved / helped / aided " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.el (aid)
r."p scholar / scholars r (person) "p, (think)
"be:)z scratched / itched " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:)z (itch)
r."gxg scribe / writer / scribes / writers r (person) "gxg (write)
c.2 second c (time) 2 (2)
t.d seed / seeds t (plant) d (Beginning)
"ph's seek / hunt / seeks / hunts " (verb) "ph (watch) '.s (toward)
r."ph's seeker / seekers r (person) "ph's (seek)
;x:"xj:"ph seen? ; (quality) x (not) "xj:"ph (hide)
"'sr.ee sell / trade? / sells / trades " (verb) "'sr.e (give) e (Possession)
r."'sr.ee seller / trader / merchant / sellers / traders / merchants r (person) "'sr.ee (sell)
"m, separate / part? / divide? / separates / parts / divides " (verb) m (Separate)
"bm separated / parted? / divided? " (verb) b (past_tense) m (separate)
'ktu.v serpent's ' (of) ktu.v (snake)
7 seven 7 (7)
c.7 seventh c (time) 7 (7)
"zm sever / cut? / slice? / break? / cuts? / severs / slices / breaks " (verb) z (Heat) m (Separate)
"bzm severed / sliced / broke / tore " (verb) b (past_tense) "zm (sever)
);)xh:)'o shadow? / shadows ) (noun) ;)xh (dark) )'.o (shape)
xc." shall-not / will-not? x (not) c." (should)
)'.o shape / form / shapes / forms ) (noun) ' (of) o (Circle)
"sef share / shares " (verb) s (Motion) e (Possession) f (many)
"bsef shared " (verb) b (past_tense) "sef (share)
;y."zm sharp ; (quality) y."zm (sword)
;(.w:;y."zm sharper ; (quality) (.w (more) ;y."zm (sharp)
"'sr.eh shine / shines? / glow / glows " (verb) "'sr.e (give) h (Light)
':)s:)si ship's ' (of) )s:)si (boat)
"b'sr.eh shone? / glowed " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.eh (shine)
;x'fs short ; (quality) ;x'.f (tiny) s (Motion)
c." should / shall? / will? / future? c (time) " (act)
)'prt shoulder / neck? / throat? / shoulders ) (noun) )'.pr (head) t (plant)
"(.gi shout / cry? / sing? / sings? / shouts / crys " (verb) (.gi (music)
;r.)xl:"= sick / ill ; (quality) r (person) )xl:"= (poison)
)':"ph sight / sights ) (noun) ' (of) "ph (watch)
;0g silent ; (quality) 0 (no) g (Say)
"r.pm sin " (verb) r.p (Goddess) m (Separate)
c.x's since c (time) x'.s (from)
r.':)(.gi singer / singers r (person) ' (of) )(.gi (song)
"br.pm sinned " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.pm (sin)
"xs:;xi sit / sat / sits " (verb) "xs (stay) ;xi (low)
u.v site / ground / sites / grounds u (place) v (Rock) place rock
"bxs:;xi sited " (verb) b (past_tense) "xs:;xi (sit)
6 six 6 (6)
4i2 sixteen 4 (four) i (High) 2 (two)
c.6 sixth c (time) 6 (6)
)'e:)'pr skull? / skulls ) (noun) '.e (at) )'.pr (head)
u.)hi sky / skies? / heavens? / heaven u (place) )hi (star)
rykr slave / slaves? r (person) ykr (robot) person + robot
")hi:)pi sleep / rest? / sleeps? / rests? " (verb) )hi:)pi (wish)
r.")hi)pi sleeper / sleepers r (person) ")hi:)pi (sleep)
"b:)hi:)pi slept / rested " (verb) b (past_tense) ")hi:)pi (sleep)
;x= slow / slowly ; (quality) x (not) ;=, (fast)
'.;x= slower ' (of) ;x= (slow)
)r.oh smile? / smiles ) (noun) )r.o (face) h (Light)
)"si:)z smoke? ) (noun) "si (lift) )z, (fire)
ktu.v snake / serpent? k (creature) tu.v (grass)
xx so / thus / therefore x (not) x (not)
;xv soft ; (quality) x (not) v (Rock)
"b'sr.ee sold / traded " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.ee (sell)
r."el soldier / soldiers r (person) "el (kill)
'r."el soldier's ' (of) r."el (soldier)
r.;ec.e son / daughter / sons / daughters r (person) ;ec (new) e (Possession)
)(.gi song / songs? ) (noun) (.gi (music)
k.)(.gik.i songbird / nightingale / songbirds / nightingales k (creature) )(.gi (song) k.i (eagle)
;xmc soon / almost ; (quality) ;xm (near) c (time)
(.xr.h sorrow / sadness? / sorrows? / misery ( (property) x (not) (r.h (joy)
"bph's sought / hunted " (verb) b (past_tense) "ph's (seek)
u.)d source / sources u (place) ) (noun) d (Beginning)
u.x:)hi space u (place) x (not) )hi (star)
"g, speak / tell? / say? / speaks? / tells? / talk / talks " (verb) g (Say)
(.;= speed ( (property) ;=, (fast)
)rt.i spine / spines ) (noun) r (person) t.i (tree)
"bg spoke / told? / said / talked " (verb) b (past_tense) "g, (speak)
)hi star / stars? ) (noun) h (Light) i (High)
'.)hi star's ' (of) )hi (star)
)hih starlight ) (noun) )hi (star) h (light)
c.d start / starts? / beginning / beginnings c (time) d (Beginning)
"xq starve? / starves " (verb) x (not) "q, (eat)
"bxq starved " (verb) b (past_tense) "xq (starve)
"xs stay / stand? / wait? / stays? / stands? / waits? / awaits? / await " (verb) x (not) "s, (go)
"bxs stayed / stood / waited / awaited " (verb) b (past_tense) "xs (stay)
"ktu.v:"e steal / steals? " (verb) ktu.v (snake) "e, (hold)
)u.xd:)s:)si stern ) (noun) u.xd (rear) )s:)si (boat)
;xs still / static ; (quality) x (not) s (Motion)
"bktu.v:"e stole " (verb) b (past_tense) "ktu.v:"e (steal)
)b, story / history? / stories? / tales? / tale ) (noun) b (past_tense)
r.x:"le stranger / newcomer r (person) x (not) r."le (friend) person deprived of (the capacity) to love
);)ov strength / might? / strengths ) (noun) ;)ov (strong)
"'sr.e:)"el strike / hit / strikes / hits " (verb) "'sr.e (give) )"el (weapon)
;)ov strong ; (quality) )ov (iron)
':;)ov stronger? ' (of) ;)ov (strong)
"b'sr.e:)"el struck " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:)"el (strike)
;"be stuck / caught / trapped / tied ; (quality) "be (owned)
"e:")m:)r suffer / suffers " (verb) e (Possession) ")m:)r (harm)
"be:")m:)r suffered " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:")m:)r (suffer)
u.ho sun / suns u (place) h (Light) o (Circle)
'.u.ho sun's ' (of) u.ho (sun)
)i:;)xh sunset / evening? ) (noun) )i, (air) ;)xh (dark)
"xr.z surrender / surrenders " (verb) x (not) "r.z (fight)
"bxr.z surrendered " (verb) b (past_tense) "xr.z (surrender)
r.x:)pr swindler / criminal / swindlers / criminals r (person) x (not) )pr (law)
"o:"'sr.es swing? / swings " (verb) o (Circle) "'sr.es (push)
y."zm sword / blade? / swords / blades y (mineral) "zm (sever)
"bo:"'sr.es swung " (verb) b (past_tense) "o:"'sr.es (swing)
)"s:;x' system / process / processes / systems ) (noun) "s, (go) ;x' (alone)
;)v:)n taut / tight? ; (quality) )v:)n (knot)
r."ga teacher / teachers r (person) "ga (explain)
)r.)=v tear / tears ) (noun) r (person) )=v (salt)
ur.p temple / temples? u (place) r.p (Goddess)
25 ten 2 (two) 5 (five)
"'sr.e:"t."l tend / sustains? / nurture / sustain / tends / nurtures " (verb) "'sr.e (give) "t."l (change)
"b'sr.e:"t."l tended / nurtured / sustained " (verb) b (past_tense) "'sr.e:"t."l (tend)
)r.2 that / those? ) (noun) r.2 (you) object (near) you
'.r.3 their ' (of) r.3 (they)
r.f2 them r (person) f (many) r.2 (you)
ur.2 there u (place) r.2 (you)
r.3 they / she? / her? / he / him / himself / herself r (person) 3 (3)
r."ktu.v"e thief / thieves r (person) "ktu.v:"e (steal)
) thing / things? ) (noun)
"p, think / know? / thinks? / knows? " (verb) p (Knowledge)
c.3 third c (time) 3 (3)
325 thirty 3 (three) 25 (ten)
)r.1 this / these? ) (noun) r.1 (me) object [near] me
"bp thought / knew " (verb) b (past_tense) "p, (think)
25i3 thousand 25 (ten) i (High) 3 (three)
3 three 3 (3)
")n tie / bind / ties / binds " (verb) )n, (rope)
)c, time / times? ) (noun) c (time)
'.c time's / season's ' (of) c (time)
;x'.f tiny / little? / small ; (quality) x (not) ;'.f (big)
"le:"= toast / toasts " (verb) "le (love) "=, (drink)
"ble:"= toasted " (verb) b (past_tense) "le:"= (toast)
c.)c.o today? c (time) )c.o (day)
)1:)'sr toe ) (noun) 1 (1) )'.sr (feet)
)5:)'sr toes ) (noun) 5 (5) )'.sr (feet)
'.n together ' (of) n (Join)
u.)xl tomb / graveyard / grave / tombs / graveyards / graves u (place) )xl (death)
c.1)c.o tomorrow c (time) 1 (1) )c.o (day)
)"gr tongue / tongues ) (noun) "g, (speak) r (person)
)"mqr tooth / teeth? ) (noun) "mq (bite) r (person)
u.i top u (place) i (High)
'.s toward / towards / for? / into? ' (of) s (Motion)
r."xa traitor / traitors? r (person) "xa (betray)
t.i tree / trees? t (plant) i (High)
;a, true / right / correct ; (quality) a (Truth)
(.a truth ( (property) a (Truth)
"bu.)so turned " (verb) b (past_tense) "u.)so (twist)
225 twenty 2 (two) 25 (ten)
5i2 twenty-five 5 (five) i (High) 2 (two)
2c twice 2 (2) c (time)
"u.)so twist / turn? / twists / turns " (verb) u.)so (corner)
2 two 2 (2)
;(.xr.h unhappy / sad / miserable ; (quality) (.xr.h (sorrow)
;xr."le unkind / cruel? / evil? ; (quality) x (not) ;r."le (nice)
c.'.s until c (time) '.s (toward)
") use / uses " (verb) " (act) ) (noun)
"b) used " (verb) b (past_tense) ") (use)
(.= value / worth? ( (property) = (Water)
"sii vault / leap / vaults / leaps " (verb) "si (lift) i (high)
"bsii vaulted / leapt " (verb) b (past_tense) "sii (vault)
ff very f (many) f (many)
;'ex'e via / by / through ; (quality) '.e (at) x'.e (out) in [and then] out [of]
u.)fr village / villages u (place) )fr (people)
;"ph visible ; (quality) "ph (watch)
)"g voice / voices? ) (noun) "g, (speak)
"c.xd:")hi:)pi wake / wakes " (verb) c.xd (end) ")hi:)pi (sleep)
"r.s walk / pace / walks / paces " (verb) r (person) s (Motion)
"br.s walked / paced " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.s (walk)
)vxs wall / barrier / walls / barriers ) (noun) v (Rock) x (not) s (Motion)
"ex want / need? / needs? / wants " (verb) e (Possession) x (not)
"bex wanted / needed " (verb) b (past_tense) "ex (want)
u."r.z war / wars u (place) "r.z (fight)
;xvz warm / orange ; (quality) ;xv (soft) z (Heat)
;x:")z wary / cautious ; (quality) x (not) ;")z (brave)
bj was / were? / been b (past_tense) j (Being)
bxj was-not / were-not b (past_tense) xj (is-not)
"ph watch / see? / look? / watches? / sees? / looks " (verb) p (Knowledge) h (Light)
"bph watched / saw? / looked " (verb) b (past_tense) "ph (watch)
r."ph watcher / observer / watchers / observers r (person) "ph (watch)
)=, water / waters? ) (noun) = (Water)
'.= water's ' (of) = (water)
r.f1 we / us / ourselves? r (person) f (many) r.1 (me) first person many
;x:)ov weak ; (quality) x (not) ;)ov (strong)
':;x:)ov weaker ' (of) ;x:)ov (weak)
);x:)ov weakness? ) (noun) ;x:)ov (weak)
)"el weapon / weapons ) (noun) "el (kill)
"sefl wed / marry / marries " (verb) "sef (share) l (Life)
"bsefl wedded / married " (verb) b (past_tense) "sefl (wed)
"=:;(.xr.h weep / weeps? / wept " (verb) = (water) ;(.xr.h (unhappy)
"b=:;(.xr.h weeped " (verb) b (past_tense) "=:;(.xr.h (weep)
"r.f1gn welcome / welcomes? / greet / greets " (verb) r.f1 (we) g (Say) n (Join) we say meet/join
"br.f1gn welcomed " (verb) b (past_tense) "r.f1gn (welcome)
u.;xi= well / spring / wellspring / wells / springs / wellsprings u (place) ;xi (low) = (Water)
"bs went / travelled " (verb) b (past_tense) "s, (go)
;'.= wet ; (quality) ' (of) = (Water)
?.) what / which ? (query) ) (noun)
?c when ? (query) c (time)
?u where ? (query) u (place)
?r who ? (query) r (person)
(.of whole ( (property) of (all)
?.)?.)s why ? (query) ?.) (what) ?.)s (if)
;"hs wide / ajar ; (quality) "hs (open)
r.e wife / husband r (person) e (Possession)
"e:)si win / wins " (verb) "e, (hold) )si (wind)
)si wind / winds? ) (noun) s (Motion) i (High) movement [at] height
'.)si wind's ' (of) )si (wind)
)"=:)l= wine / raqi? ) (noun) "=, (drink) )l= (blood)
)k.i:)er wing / wings? ) (noun) k.i (eagle) )er (arm)
;p, wise ; (quality) p (Knowledge)
)hi:)pi wish / hope? / dream? / wishes / hopes / dreams ) (noun) )hi (star) )pi (idea)
"t."xl wither / withers " (verb) t (plant) "xl (die)
"bt."xl withered " (verb) b (past_tense) "t."xl (wither)
;"t."xl withering / grey ; (quality) "t."xl (wither)
u.'.e within / inside? u (place) '.e (at)
x' without x (not) ' (of)
"bc.xd:")hi:)pi woke " (verb) b (past_tense) "c.xd:")hi:)pi (wake)
"be:)si won " (verb) b (past_tense) "e:)si (win)
"p? wonder / question / wonders / questions " (verb) "p, (think) ? (query)
"bp? wondered / questioned " (verb) b (past_tense) "p? (wonder)
t.)rt.i wood / woods t (plant) )r (body) t.i (tree)
);"gxg word / words? / symbol / symbols ) (noun) ;"gxg (written) thing written
y.s work / operation? / labour / labours / operations y (mineral) s (Motion)
;'of:;x(.al worst ; (quality) '.of (most) ;x(.al (bad)
"gxg write / record? / writes / records " (verb) "g, (speak) x (not) g (Say) action of speaking without speach
)"gxg writing / script ) (noun) "gxg (write)
;"gxg written ; (quality) "gxg (write) quality (of which is) write
;xa wrong / false / incorrect ; (quality) x (not) a (Truth)
"bgxg wrote / recorded " (verb) b (past_tense) "gxg (write)
)cu.ho year / years ) (noun) c (time) u.ho (sun)
c.x1)c.o yesterday c (time) x (not) 1 (1) )c.o (day)
r.2 you / yourself? r (person) 2 (2)
'.r.2 your / yours ' (of) r.2 (you)

Spoken[edit]

Work on translating spoken Ancient is ongoing, so nearly everything in this section should be considered tentative and subject to change. If a translation is followed by a question mark, it is even more tentative.

Word/Morpheme Meaning Subwords Written
ali up i
aliya exalted up-life il
ang knowledge p
angset answer knowledge-speech pg
bo of, as, with '
bo-cataliti ifarali heaven's vault of-heaven vault/jump 'u.)hi "sii
boyaiki your of-you '.r.2
boyauki my of-me '.r.1
cat place u
catkis place of kings place-leader ur.a
catiokis place of princes place-future-leader urc."r.a
catya home place-life u.l
el land/moon/world/globe u.lo
elboreth moon of thieves globe-of-taking?
en hold? e
far move, go s
farwet traveller? visitor?
hua true? ;a,
huameke ?? true?-person
humenyaqi withering plant-negation-life ;"t."xl
i is/are (any present form of 'to be') j
ieni-hua good faith?/welcome? "r.f1gn
i-ensi want verb-have-negation "ex
ifarali vault/hopper verb-travel-up "sii
kei heart?/heart?
ki person/intelligent being r
Kibenya (water goddess) one who gives life?
kis king/leader/ruler person-truth r.a
malifar fall negation-go-up "sxi
meke person/people/human creature-intelligent being kr
mori near negation-apart/far ;xm,
mya machine/artificial/inorganic y
myameke robot inorganic-creature-person ykr
mykis better ?-leader
phys
re thing, object )
refar path/route noun-motion )s,
re-menya weapon? )"el
reth take "e,
ri
salle sailor r.':)s:)s
sallehua sailor-true
set speak g
si not, no x
siang question negation-knowledge xp
siboar from negation-of/by-go x'.s
sifar wait negation-go "xs
sliset silence no-speech (;0g
ti light h
tifar door, entrance light-go ("hs
ya life l
yaiki you r.2
yauki me, I r.1
sli zero/none 0